The Foot & Ankle

ankle and foot surgeryThe human foot and ankle is a strong and complex mechanical structure containing exactly 26 bones, 33 joints (20 of which are actively articulated), and more than a hundred muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

The foot can be subdivided into the forefoot, midfoot and hind foot:

The forefoot is composed of five toes and the corresponding five proximal long bones forming the metatarsus. Similar to the fingers of the hand, the bones of the toes are called phalanges and the big toe has two phalanges while the other four toes have three phalanges.

The five irregular bones of the midfoot, the cuboid, navicular, and three cuneiform bones, form the arches of the foot which serves as a shock absorber. The midfoot is connected to the hind- and fore-foot by muscles and the plantar fascia.

The hindfoot is composed of the talus (or ankle bone) and the calcaneus (or heel bone). The two long bones of the lower leg, the tibia and fibula, are connected to the top of the talus to form the ankle. Connected to the talus at the subtalar joint, the calcaneus, the largest bone of the foot, is cushioned inferiorly by a layer of fat.

Like the hand and wrist, the foot and ankle is used heavily as we go about our day-to-day activities. The foot and ankle joints are also complex in that there can be many conditions and injuries that cause patients discomfort. At OSC, we are well-versed in the various foot and ankle ailments and can help our patients find comfort and relief with a specialized focus on each specific situation.